Juguang, Lienchiang

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Coordinates: 25°57′50.5″N 119°57′32.9″E / 25.964028°N 119.959139°E / 25.964028; 119.959139

Juguang Township

莒光鄉

Chukuang
Dongju
Dongju
Juguang Township in Lienchiang County
Juguang Township in Lienchiang County
LocationLienchiang, Taiwan
Rural villages5
Government
 • MayorHsieh Chun-Lan (謝春欗) (KMT)
Area
 • Total5.26 km2 (2.03 sq mi)
Population
 (June 2016)[2]
 • Total1,595
 • Density300/km2 (790/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (National Standard Time)
Postal code
211
Websitewww.chukuang.gov.tw

Juguang Township / Jyuguang Township[3][4][5] (Chinese: 莒光; Hanyu Pinyin: Jǔguāng Xiāng; Tongyong Pinyin: Jyǔguang Siang; Wade–Giles: Chü3-kuang1 Hsiang1; Foochow Romanized: Gṳ̄-guŏng-hiŏng), also spelled Chukuang, is a rural township of Lienchiang County (the Matsu Islands), Republic of China (Taiwan). Juguang Township includes two major islands, Dongju Island (東莒 "East Ju"; Dĕ̤ng-gṳ̄) and Xiju Island (西莒 "West Ju"; Să̤-gṳ̄),[6] as well as some islets.

Name[edit]

On October 15, 1971, the Executive Yuan approved changing the name of the township from Baiquan Township (Paichuan, White Dogs; 白犬鄉) to Juguang Township (Chukuang; 莒光鄉). They also approved changing the name of Xiquan Island (Hsichuan; 西犬島) to Xiju Island (Hsiju; 西莒島) and Dongquan Island (Tungchuan; 東犬島) to Dongju Island (Tungchu; 東莒島).[7][8] The islands were renamed based on a quote of a speech by Chiang Kai-shek, "forget not that you're in Ju" (毋忘在莒; Wú wàng zài Jǔ; Ù uông câi Gṳ̄). It refers to the City of Ju, where the king of Qi prepared a counterattack that retook his country from the State of Yan. This is an analogy of Matsu and Taiwan generally as bases of the Republic of China (ROC) to regenerate itself and one day recover mainland China from the Chinese Communist Party.[citation needed]

Dongju and Xiju Islands were previously named Dongquan (Tung-ch'üan Tao[9]/Tung-ch'uan Tao[6] 東犬; Dĕ̤ng-kēng) and Xiquan (Hsi-ch'üan Tao[9]/Hsi-ch'uan Tao[6] 西犬; Să̤-kēng) Islands, meaning "Eastern Dog" and "Western Dog" respectively. They have also been called the White Dogs[10] (Paichuan, Baiquan) or White Dog Islands (白犬島; Băh-kēng-dō̤) or Baiken Islands (白肯島). The name Baiquan (白犬) has been connected with the homophonous name Baiquan (白畎).[3]:29

History[edit]

On May 15, 1617, sixty-nine wokou were captured alive in the area.[11]

In 1872, construction of Dongsha (Tungsha) Lighthouse (Dongquan Lighthouse) began.[12]

In December 1939, Japanese naval forces from Taiwan occupied the islands.[13]

The islands were originally part of the Changle County before the ROC government evacuated to Taiwan. It is considered by the People's Republic of China government as part of Changle City of the Fuzhou City.

In September 1953, the Changlo County (長樂縣) government was established on the islands.[14]

Western Enterprises (西方公司), a CIA front organization, had a communications base on Xiquan (Hsichuan).[15]

After a series of combat readiness tests carried out by MAAG were completed on April 15, 1955, the overall Chinese Nationalist defense preparations for the Matsu Islands were rated as satisfactory. One of the weaknesses noted was "the seriously understrength regiment garrisoning the Paichuan (White Dog) Islands group".[16]

In July 1956, the islands were transferred to Lienchiang County. The islands were divided into two townships: Xiquan and Dongquan.[17]

On August 19, 1958, President Chiang Kai-shek visited Xiju Island (then Xiquan) and spoke to the soldiers there.[3]:465, 488[13]

In September 1960, the two townships were united into one, Paichuan (Baiquan) township.[18]

On July 23, 1964, Chiang Ching-kuo visited the islands.[3]:468

On October 15, 1971, the Executive Yuan approved changing the name of the township from Baiquan Township (Paichuan, White Dogs; 白犬鄉) to Juguang Township (Chukuang; 莒光鄉). They also approved changing the name of Xiquan Island (Hsichuan; 西犬島) to Xiju Island (Hsiju; 西莒島) and Dongquan Island (Tungchuan; 東犬島) to Dongju Island (Tungchu; 東莒島).[7][8]

On September 21, 1979 and on May 3, 1980, President Chiang Ching-kuo visited the township.[19]

On June 18, 1993, President Lee Teng-hui visited the Dongju Elementary School.[3]:480[20]

On June 24, 2001, Typhoon Chebi caused 3,000,000 yuan of damage on the islands.[3]:486

In the 2018 election, Mayor Hsieh Chun-Lan (謝春欗) was re-elected mayor, defeating her opponent Chen Shun-Shou (陳順壽) by over a hundred votes. Hsieh called for rebuilding the former township office as a resort, beautification of the township, and creation of a vibrant sight-seeing economy.[21]

Geography[edit]

Dongju (labeled as TUNG-CH'ÜAN-TAO 東犬島) and Xiju (HSI-CH'ÜAN TAO (TUNG-SHA TAO) 西犬島) (1954)
莒光 35884606711 f753182778 o.jpg

Dongju (Tong Chu[22]), the southernmost of the Matsu Islands, is 2.63 km² and Sijyu 2.36 km². Islets includes like Yongliu (永留嶼 Yongliu) near Dongju. Dongju is shaped like a dagger, while Xiju a triangle, so seemingly bigger on maps. Some cliffs of Dongjyu is severely corroded by wind, creating a strangely aesthetic appearance. Other islands include Linaoyu (林坳嶼) also known as Lintouyu (林頭嶼),[23] Xiniuyu (犀牛嶼), Dayu (大嶼), Xiaoyu (小嶼), and Sheshan (蛇山).[24][25] The northernmost and easternmost points of Juguang Township are on Dayu, the westernmost point is on Sheshan, and the southernmost point is on Linaoyu.[1][3]:49 Linaoyu is also the southernmost point of the Matsu Islands.[26]

Juguang is across from Meihua Town (梅花), Changle District, Fuzhou, Fujian, China (PRC).[27]

Politics and government[edit]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Xiju Island
Dongju Island

Administratively the islands are part of the Lienchiang County. Neither Dongju nor Xiju has an island-wide administrative level.[28] The islands are divided into five rural villages:[29]

Xiju Island

    • Qingfan Village (青帆村 Qīngfán, 青蕃村)
    • Xiqiu Village (西坵村 Xīqīu)
    • Tianwo Village (田沃村 Tiánwò)

Dongju Island

    • Daping Village (大坪村 Dàpíng)
    • Fuzheng Village (福正村 Fúzhèng)

Mayors[edit]

  • Appointed mayors:[30]
  1. Chen Chia-Tui (陳家錞) (1960-1961)
  2. Lin Tso-Chou (林作舟) (1961-1964)
  3. Hsueh Chih-Lien (薛繼廉) (1964-1967), former mayor of Nangan
  4. Li Kuei-Li (李貴立) (1967-1970), later mayor of Beigan
  5. Chen I-Peng (陳一鵬) (1970-1973), mayor during the change of the name of the township and islands,[8] former mayor of Beigan and later mayor of Nangan (Matsu)
  6. Lin Po-Jen (林柏仁) (1973-1978)
  • Elected mayors:[8]
  1. Lin Mao-Chun (林茂春) (1978-1982), received 692 votes out of a total 697 votes cast (699 eligible voters)
  2. Chen Chien-Kuang (陳建光) (1982-1986)
  3. Chen Le-Tuan (陳樂團) (1986-1990)
  4. Tsao Erh-Szu (曹爾思) (1990-1994)
  5. Wang Ta-Chieh (王大捷) (1994-1998)
  6. Chiang Chih-Hsing (姜繼興) (1998-2002)
  7. Wang Ta-Chieh (王大捷) (2002-2006), second term
  8. Ko Yu-Kuan (柯玉官) (2006-2014)
  9. Hsieh Chun-Lan (謝春欗) (2014–present) (KMT), b.1960[31] first female mayor of the township

Infrastructure[edit]

Electricity supply[edit]

The township is powered up by Xiju Power Plant located in Xiju Island and Dongju Power Plant located in Dongju Island. Due to the changes in electricity needs, both islands were interconnected by submarine power cable since 2000.[32]

Water supply[edit]

Ledaoao Reservoir

Previously, water supply had been scarce in Xiju Island despite having water wells drilled around the island by the residents. Later the military built a dam and formed the Ledaoao Reservoir for the water needs of residents, defense and irrigation.[33]

Tourism[edit]

Juguang Visitor Center

The 19.5-metre (54-step) Dongquan Lighthouse on northern Dongjyu, made during the late Qing Dynasty with granite. The guiding light is in the shape of a clam and can reach 16.7 nautical miles (30.9 km). Dongju Lighthouse is a second-level national historic building. In front of the lighthouse, there used to be four mist-cannon for signaling, but has now been removed and placed in Matsu Folk Culture Museum.

The 42-character Dapu Inscription, in Dapu Seaport of Dongju, was made during the Wanli era of the Ming Dynasty, concerning the capture of pirates alive. Remembering-the-Past Pavilion (懷古亭 Huaigu Ting) was constructed in 1966 sheltering the stone.

In the sea south of the Sijyu, there is Snake Mountain (蛇山). The main island has a small Green-sail Seaport (青帆港), two water reservoirs and a middle-elementary school, but are not major tourist attractions.[34]

It also features the Mysterious Little Bay.

Transportation[edit]

Heliport in Xiju Island

There is one accessible seaport on Xiju, and two on Dongju. Juguang can be reached by ferry from Fuao Harbor in Nangan or by helicopter which only operates during the winter and priority on which is given to local residents.

Notable natives[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b 莒光鄉誌 【地理篇】第一章 境域 第一節 地理位置 (in Chinese). Retrieved 16 September 2016. 莒光鄉最東、最北為大嶼,最西為蛇山,最南為林坳嶼,列島陸域總面積5.26平方公里,佔全縣總面積的17.77%,海岸線長度為25.84公里,依其周邊陸棚及近岸海域約34.5平方公里,佔全縣海域面積15.61%,合計本鄉海陸總面積約39.71平方公里。
  2. ^ 截至106年6月底 馬祖總人口數12716人. Matsu Daily (in Chinese). 14 July 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2019. 莒光鄉:287戶,1595人,較103年1438人增加157人;男性966人,女性629人。
  3. ^ a b c d e f g 林金炎, ed. (2006). 莒光鄉志 [The Biography of Jyuguang Township] (in Chinese). ISBN 986-00-5026-0.
  4. ^ 1.7-鄉鎮市區戶口數 [Population for Township and District]. Ministry of the Interior (in Chinese and English). August 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020. 莒光鄉 Jyuguang Township 4.7000 312 1,499 919 580 158.45 4.80 319
  5. ^ "The Post Office in Lienchiang County". Chunghwa Post. 15 December 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2020. Fujheng Village, Jyuguang Township, Lienchiang County 211091, Taiwan , R.O.C.
  6. ^ a b c Daniel Ellsberg (February 1963). "DRAFT NOTES ON OFFSHORE ISLANDS". p. 24. Retrieved 26 August 2019 – via Internet Archive. For US purposes we have defined the OSI to include Kinmen, and Little Kinmen and the 5 larger islands of the Matsu area (Kao-teng Tao, Peikan Tang, Ma-tsu shan, Hsi-ch'uan Tao, Tung-ch'uan Tao).
  7. ^ a b 莒光鄉誌 【政事篇】第一章 建置沿革 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  8. ^ a b c d 莒光鄉誌 第八節 莒光鄉公所(民國60.10.15~) (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2019. 民國六十年十月十五日,經行政院核定「白犬鄉」改為「莒光鄉」、「西犬島」改為「西莒島」、「東犬島」改為「東莒島」,鄉長乃是陳一鵬先生擔任。這項更名是內政部十月十五日(60)臺內地字437880號函核定頒布,而馬祖防衛部奉國防部十月廿二日(60)靈祉字第2899號轉內政部的核定文。
  9. ^ a b "NG 50-12 P'U-T'IEN" (in English and Chinese). Washington, D. C.: Army Map Service. 1954 – via Perry–Castañeda Library Map Collection. HSI-CH'ÜAN TAO (TUNG-SHA TAO) 西犬島 TUNG-CH'ÜAN TAO 東犬島
  10. ^ "CURRENT INTELLIFENCE BULLETIN". Office of Current Intelligence, CIA. 5 May 1955. p. 9. PAICHUAN ISLANDS (WHITE DOGS) HSICHUAN TUNGCHUAN
  11. ^ 莒光鄉誌 【大事記】明朝 (in Chinese). Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  12. ^ 莒光鄉誌 清朝 (in Chinese). Retrieved 19 September 2019.
  13. ^ a b 莒光鄉誌 民國(十三年至五十年) (in Chinese). Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  14. ^ 莒光鄉誌 第五節 長樂縣政府(民國42.09~45.07.15) (in Chinese). Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  15. ^ 莒光鄉誌 第六節 西方公司 (in Chinese). Retrieved 18 September 2019. 西莒島上的西方公司聯絡站,全盛時駐有十七、八人之多,常駐的美國人先後有蒙哥馬利(Philip T. Montgomery)、柯遇可(Michael D. Coe)、詹姆士(Campbell R. James)等。
  16. ^ "CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN". Office of Current Intelligence, CIA. 22 April 1955. pp. 11–12.
  17. ^ 莒光鄉誌 第六節 東犬鄉和西犬鄉(民國45.07.16~49.09) (in Chinese). Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  18. ^ 莒光鄉誌 第七節 白犬鄉公所(民國49.09.01~60.10.15) (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  19. ^ 莒光鄉誌 民國(五十一年至七十年) (in Chinese). Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  20. ^ 莒光鄉誌 民國(七十一年至九十三年) (in Chinese). Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  21. ^ 葉書宏 (25 November 2018). 莒光鄉決戰 謝春欗連任成功. China Times (in Chinese). Retrieved 17 September 2019. 僅有莒光鄉形成2搶1局面,最後由現任鄉長謝春欗以百餘票領先,連任成功,而謝春欗勝選關鍵在於家族動員及旅台鄉親。{...}莒光鄉現任鄉長謝春欗將爭取連任,另外還有鄉代會祕書陳順壽登記,形成2搶1局面。謝是東莒人,夫家又是西莒大家族,連任呼聲不低,成功擊敗對手。 謝春欗指出,未來要推動莒光鄉公所舊址重建為山海一家海館,進行街巷風貌改善,成為食、住、購、旅合而為一的綜合商場,活絡整體觀光經濟發展。
  22. ^ Patrick E. Tyler (18 March 1996). "China Warns U.S. to Keep Away From Taiwan Strait". New York Times. Retrieved 16 January 2020. "We are leaving for Taiwan to escape disaster," said a schoolgirl from the island of Tong Chu, near Matsu and just 10 nautical miles away from the area of the Chinese war games. Taiwan television stations carried film of the mini-evacuation, but also noted that a number of residents were choosing to stay in their homes.
  23. ^ 擬定連江縣風景特定區計畫說明書 (PDF). June 2002. p. 16. 林頭(坳)
  24. ^ 莒光鄉誌 第三節 礁岩名稱 (in Chinese). Retrieved 16 September 2016. 莒光鄉是由東莒島、西莒島、林坳嶼、犀牛嶼、永留嶼、大、小嶼、蛇山所組成,
  25. ^ 連江縣土地段名代碼表 (in Chinese). Department of Land Administration. 10 May 1996. Retrieved 17 September 2019. 地政事務所名稱(代碼) 金門(WA) 鄉鎮市區名稱(代碼) 金湖鎮(01){...}段 小段 代碼 備註 福正 0025 大坪 0026 田沃 0027 青帆 0028 犀牛嶼 0029 大嶼 0030 林坳 0031 更正 蛇山 0032
  26. ^ 地理位置 (in Chinese). Retrieved 16 September 2019. 馬祖列島位於台灣本島西北方{...}南到莒光鄉林頭嶼南岸(北緯25度56分)
  27. ^ 梅花镇入选第六批省级历史文化名镇名村. 福州市长乐区人民政府 (in Chinese). 9 January 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2020. 梅花镇地处长乐东北角,闽江口南岸突出部,东濒台湾海峡,与白犬列岛海域相邻,与马祖列岛互望,
  28. ^ "Juguang - Matsu National Scenic Area". Matsu-nsa.gov.tw. 2012-08-13. Retrieved 2014-04-23.
  29. ^ 村莊介紹. 連江縣莒光鄉公所 (in Chinese). Retrieved 17 September 2019. 青帆村:青帆村原名「青蕃」,{...}田沃村{...}西坵村{...}大坪村{...}福正村{...}
  30. ^ 莒光鄉誌 第三章 人物表 (in Chinese). Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  31. ^ 認識鄉長 《謝春欗小檔案》. 連江縣莒光鄉公所 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  32. ^ "東引電廠及西莒電廠" [Dongyin Power Plant and Xiju Power Plant]. 台灣電力公司 (in Chinese). Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  33. ^ "Ledaoao". Matsu National Scenic Area. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
  34. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-08-01. Retrieved 2014-12-27.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External links[edit]